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Fortuna Muliebris ("Womanly or Female Fortune") is an aspect of the Roman Goddess of luck and fate Who cared for the well-being and luck of women, especially married women. It is likely that Fortuna was a Goddess of women and childbirth from earliest times; Her oldest cult-center at Praeneste was dedicated to Fortuna Primigenia, First-born Fortune, whose epithet not only referenced Her ancient nature but Her connection with children and birth, and the site of Her oracle in a small cave connects Her to the Mother Goddess of the Earth. So though Her epithet of Muliebris may not be Her oldest one, the idea of Fortuna as concerned with the fates of women is very ancient. As childbirth is not the safest thing to experience even nowadays, Fortuna may have been invoked to preserve the health of the mother and new born baby, and bring a quick, easy and (relatively) painless delivery.

Like most depictions of Fortuna, Fortuna Muliebris was shown with a rudder and cornucopia, symbolizing Fate Who guides, and the abundance chance may bring. She is usually seated, which represents a wish for the stability of good fortune. According to the legend, worship of Fortuna Muliebris was instituted at a time when Rome was under attack in the 5th century BCE by Cnaeus Marcius Coriolanus, a descendant of Ancus Marcius, an early king. Once a hero of Rome, he later led an army of Volscians against the city, and refused all the pleadings of the senators and the priests to stop the attack. Until, that is, the matrons (married women) of Rome came out to plead with him, including his own mother Veturia with his wife and their two young children. They managed to convince him to call it off, and on the spot where Veturia talked him out of it he dedicated a temple to Fortuna Muliebris in honor of them.

This temple was on the Via Latina, one of the main roads out of Rome, and located about four miles from the city. It was traditionally founded prior to the mid-4th century BCE on the 6th day of July, which became its festival day. Her statue there could only be touched by matrons who had been married once, and was credited with being able to speak—when consecrated, the statue was said to have said, "Women of the City, you have dedicated me by the holy law of Rome".

She could be depicted on coins, especially those of the female relatives of Emperors, as a prayer for the health and fecundity of the imperial family.