The Goddesses of ancient Rome have various origins, as one might
expect of the Pantheon of a conquering people. Many have their roots in the
ancient tribes of the Italian peninsula, such as the Oscan, Umbrian, or Picene
peoples, who were related culturally and linguistically to the Latins, and who
were eventually absorbed into the Roman Republic. (The linguistic exception,
of course, is the Etruscans: though Rome adopted or inherited a sizeable portion
of its religious doings from them, the Etruscan language is not related to Latin.
Well, to be more precise, it is not related to anything at all, though loopy
theories abound.) Some Goddesses come from a bit farther afield, brought by
folk like the Greeks settlers who founded a colony in south-western Italy called
Magna Graecia, which is why "Naples" comes from the Greek Neapolis,
or "New City". In later times, Goddesses from an even wider understanding
of the world were imported from places like Egypt and Syria. As this is a directory
of obscure Goddesses, however, many of those listed below are quite local,
tied to, for example, an exceptional spring or range of hills, or perhaps acting
as the specific patroness or namesake of a city.
So, then, to explain how this directory works: each of the (good-sized)
entries below includes aspects of the individual Goddess, information on how
She was worshipped, the location where She was honored, holidays associated
with Her, other Goddesses who are related to or identified with Her, &c.
All the Etruscan Goddesses are listed within the Roman ones on this page as
it is not always easy to sort them out; however the more obvious ones are also
separated onto their own page so you can get a feel
for who's who. Continental Celtic Goddesses (of whom there are about a gajillion),
who were known in locations which at times did fall within the limits of the
Roman Empire will in the future have their own page for the sake of cultural
clarity. Non-obvious variants or alternate names are given on this page but
will link to a single article; if you didn't know for instance that Tanaquil
and Caia Caecilia were one and the same you'd
never figure it out from Her names alone. Epithets and aspects of some of the
more major Goddesses such as Juno, Fortuna,
and Venus are listed individually, and they are also gathered up on their own
index pages, which are in bold below; some epithets, such as (Aphrodite)
Erycina, or (Juno) Lucina, were separate Goddesses
in their own right that later became connected with more well-known Goddesses.
Also, articles marked with an *
have illustrations, by me: mostly (though not all) are from the Goddess Oracle
Deck. I find that writing about Goddesses inspires me to draw Them, so there
may well be more art coming (although of course, alas! I cannot draw nearly
as quickly as I can write!)
One more note: please respect my copyright on this material and
do not reproduce it. If you use it as a reference or as research for your own
article, fine; you are also perfectly free to print out copies for your own
personal or religious use, of course, and if you'd like to link to these pages
I'd be delighted; but please do not just cut and paste the material to your
own web site. Thank you, and enjoy!
And another note: I was sorta kinda doing these in alphabetical
order, but if there's a (Roman only, and for now excluding Romano-Celtic, since
I'm nowhere near there yet) Goddess article you'd like to see, just ask
and I'll see what I can do.
Newly uploaded: articles on Juno Februtis,
Juno in Her aspect of purification Goddess, Laetitia,
the Goddess of Happiness and Celebration, Febris,
the Goddess of Fevers and Malaria; Fauna, Goddess of
the Wild, and Fama, Rumor.
Acca Larentia, Adiona,
Akhuvitr, Albunea, Alemona,
Alpan, Anagtia, Anceta,
Anna Perenna, Annona,
Antevorta, Antiat, Appias,
Arethusa, Aricia, Augusta,
Bellona, Bibesia, The
Bona Dea, Brevis, Bubona.
Caecilia, Calva, Camenae, Candilifera,
Canens, Caprotina, Cardea,
Carmenta, Carna, Catha,
Cilens, Cinxia, Clementia,
Commolenda, Conciliatrix, Concordia,
Conservatrix, Consiva, Copia,
Cotys, Cuba, Culsu, Cunina,
Cupra, Curiatia, Curitis,
Dea Caelestis, Dea
Cupra, Dea Dia, Dea Marica,
Dea Quartiana, Dea Syria,
Dea Tertiana, Decima, Deferunda,
Deiuai, Deverra, Diana*,
Dido, Dii Involuti, Dii Superiores, Disciplina,
Discordia, Diva Angerona,
Domiduca, Dubia, Duellona.
Egeria, Elissa, Empanada,
Equitas, Erycina, Ethausva,
Fausta Felicitas, Febris,
Februtis, Fecunditas, Felicitas,
Felix, Ferentina, Feronia,
Fessonia, Fides, Flanona, Flora, Fluonia, Flusia,
Fons, Fornax, Fors, Fortuna,
Fortuna Bona, Fortuna of Good
Hope, Fortuna Huiusce Diei, Fraus, Frutesca,
Frutis, Fufetia, Fulgora,
Furies, Furrina, Futrei Kerriiai.
Gaia, Gamelia, Genita Mana, Gubernens.
Hecate, Herentai, Hersilia, Hinthial,
Hirpa, Hora, Horta, Hostilina, Huiusce
Ikiperu, Inferna, Intercidona,
Jana, Jaturnia, Juga, Jugalis,
Jugatina, Juno, Justitia, Juturna, Juventas.
Lacinia, Laetitia, Lala,
Lasa, Latona, Laverna*,
Lavinia, Leinth, Lemuria, Levana, Libera, Libertas,
Liberum, Libitina, Lignaco Dex, Limentina, Lina,
Losna, Lua, Lucania, Lucetia,
Lucina, Luna, Lupa, Lympha, Lyssa.
Ma, Maatreis Maauissa, Mafitei, Magna Mater, Mah-Bellona, Maia,
Maia Maiestas, Mala,
Manens, Mania, Manturnea, Marica,
Martialis, Mater Larum,
Mater Matuta, Matres Suleviae, Matrona, Maturna, Matuta, Mean,
Meditrina, Mellona, Menrfa, Mens, Mephitis, Mera,
Mercia, Messia, Minerva, Miseria, Mlakukh, Mobilis,
Molae, Moneta, Mors, Morta, Muliebris,
Nacio, Naenia, Natalis, Nathum, Navrilis,
Necessitas, Nemesis, Nerio, Neverita, Nixi Dii, Noduterensis, Nodutus, Nona,
Nortia, Nox, Numera, Nundina, Nutrix, Nuxia, Nympha.
Obsequens (Fortuna), Obsequens (Venus),
Opifera, Opigena, Ops, Orbona, Ossipago.
Palatua, Pales, Pallor, Panda, Parcae,
Patelana, Patricia, Pavor, Pax, Pecunia, Pellonia,
Penates, Perficia, Pertunda, Perusina, Peta, Phersipnai,
Pietas, Plebis, Poena, Pomona*,
Postvorta, Populonia, Porrima,
Potina, Prema, Prestota, Primigenia,
Privata, Promitor, Pronuba, Prorsa,
Proserpina, Providentia, Publica, Pudicitia, Pulvinensis.
Reitia, Respiciens, Rhea, Rhea Silvia, Robigo,
Roma, Romana, Rumina, Runcina,
Salacia, Salus, Salutaris, Scabies,
Secia, Segetia, Seia, Sorores Antii, Sororia, Sospita,
Spes, Stata Mater, Stimula, Strenia, Suadela, Supra.
Tainai, Talassio, Tanaquil, Tanit,
Taracia, Tarpeia, Tellus, Tempestates, Thalna,
Thanr, Thesan, Thufltha,
The Tiburtine Sibyl, Tiv,
Turan, Tursa, Tutilina.
Vacuna, Vagitanus, Valentina, Valetudo, Vallonia, Vanth,
Venilia, Venus, Vesta*,
Vicapota, Victoria, Virginia, Virgo, Virilis,
Viriplaca, Virtis, Viscata, Vitellia, Voltumna, Volumna,
The White Sibyl