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Fortuna Romana ("The Luck of Rome"), also called Fortuna Populi Romani ("Fortune of the Roman People"), is an aspect of the Roman Goddess of luck and fate Who specifically watches over and provides for the city of Rome and its people Who was considered the guardian spirit, or juno (equivalent to the male genius) of that city. Her worship in Rome comes at a time when Fortuna's Greek equivalant, Tykhe, was being used in the eastern stretches of the Empire as a guardian Goddess of cities.

The 4th century CE Emperor Constantine had a temple to the Goddess Fortuna built in his new city of Constantinople (now it's Istanbul, not Constantinople, been a long time gone), even though by that time he had already converted to Christianity! This temple was complete with a grand statue of the Goddess as Fortuna Romana. He had moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Constantinople, and it may be that he felt it ritually necessary to bring the protective Deity of the Empire with him to Her new capital, so that Her Luck would follow him there.

On one coin of Constantine is an image of the Genio Populi Romani, the (male) guardian spirit or genius of the Roman people. Like Fortuna, He holds a cornucopia or horn of plenty. He is probably to be associated with the Emperor himself as guardian of the state.

The Goddess Roma is closely connected to Fortuna Romana, as She was also first worshipped as the spirit of the city of Rome, and in Imperial times became the city itself personified.